Zwei Wochen nach dem Einmarsch der Türkei im Norden Syriens haben sich Russland und die Türkei, man muss es so formulieren, auf ihre Variante einer Sicherheitszone für Nordsyrien verständigt. Das unmittelbare Ergebnis ist eine Verlängerung der Waffenruhe in der Region – vor allem aber ein teilweises Zugeständnis an die von der Türkei erreichten Geländegewinne und die Einrichtung gemeinsamer türkisch-russischer Patrouillen.
Gerade letzteres entbehrt nicht einer gewissen bitteren Ironie: Das Ende gemeinsamer Patrouillen der USA und der Türkei, veranlasst durch den Abzug der US-Soldaten, hatte der Türkei erst ihre militärische Aktion gegen die Kurden in Nordsyrien ermöglicht. Und bedeutsam auch: Bei ihrem Treffen in Sotchi am (heutigen) Dienstag betonten Russlands Präsident Wladimir Putin und der türkische Präsident Recep Tayyip Erdogan ihr Bekenntnis zur territorialen Integrität Syriens.
(Am Rande: Mit dieser Variante einer von den beiden Ländern vereinbarten Sicherheitszone stellt sich um so mehr die Frage, welche Chancen die – ohnehin in den Einzelheiten noch völlig unklare – von der deutschen Verteidigungsministerin Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer ins Gespräch gebrachte Sicherheitszone als westliche Initiative überhaupt haben könnte.)
Zur Dokumentation der Text der russisch-türkischen Vereinbarung in der vom Kreml veröffentlichten englischen Fassung:
Memorandum of Understanding Between Turkey and the Russian Federation
October 22, 2019
President of the Republic of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan and President of The Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin agreed on the following points:
1. The two sides reiterate their commitment to the preservation of the political unity and territorial integrity of Syria and the protection of national security of Turkey.
2. They emphasize their determination to combat terrorism in all forms and manifestations and to disrupt separatist agendas in the Syrian territory.
3. In this framework, the established status quo in the current Operation Peace Spring area covering Tel Abyad and Ras Al Ayn with a depth of 32 km will be preserved.
4. Both sides reaffirm the importance of the Adana Agreement. The Russian Federation will facilitate the implementation of the Adana Agreement in the current circumstances.
5. Starting 12.00 noon of October 23, 2019, Russian military police and Syrian border guards will enter the Syrian side of the Turkish-Syrian border, outside the area of Operation Peace Spring, to facilitate the removal of YPG elements and their weapons to the depth of 30 km from the Turkish-Syrian border, which should be finalized in 150 hours. At that moment, joint Russian-Turkish patrols will start in the west and the east of the area of Operation Peace Spring with a depth of 10 km, except Qamishli city.
6. All YPG elements and their weapons will be removed from Manbij and Tal Rifat.
7. Both sides will take necessary measures to prevent infiltrations of terrorist elements.
8. Joint efforts will be launched to facilitate the return of refugees in a safe and voluntary manner.
9. A joint monitoring and verification mechanism will be established to oversee and coordinate the implementation of this memorandum.
10. The two sides will continue to work to find a lasting political solution to the Syrian conflict within Astana Mechanism and will support the activity of the Constitutional Committee.
Der Kreml veröffentlichte auch die Abschrift von Putins Statement bei der gemeinsamen Pressekonferenz der beiden Staatschefs in englischer Übersetzung:
Putin: Mr President, ladies and gentlemen,
We thank the President of Turkey for accepting our offer made during a recent telephone conversation, and today he and representatives of his delegation arrived in Sochi to discuss the developments in the Syrian Arab Republic, including in the northeast, beyond the Euphrates.
Mr Erdogan gave a detailed explanation of the goals of the Turkish military operation along the Syrian border. We have noted many times that we understand Turkey’s desire to take measures that would guarantee its national security.
We share Turkey’s concerns about the growing threat of terrorism and ethnic and religious disputes in that region. We believe these disputes and separatist sentiments have been fueled artificially from the outside.
It is important to prevent members of terrorist organisations, such as ISIS, whose militants have been taken prisoners by Kurd military groups and try to break free, from taking advantage of the actions of the Turkish military units.
Syria must be liberated from illegal foreign military presence. We believe that the only way to achieve strong and long-lasting stability in Syria is to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. This is our principled position, and we have discussed it with the President of Turkey.
It is important that our Turkish partners share this approach. The Turks and the Syrians will have to protect peace on the border together, which would be impossible without mutually respectful cooperation between the two countries.
In addition to this, a broad dialogue between the Syrian government and the Kurds living in northeastern Syria must be launched. It is clear that all the rights and interests of the Kurds as an integral part of the multi-ethnic Syrian nation can only be fully considered and fulfilled via such an inclusive dialogue.
Of course, during our talks with the President of Turkey, we discussed further steps to promote the peaceful political process in Syria, which the Syrians will conduct within the Constitutional Committee in cooperation with the United Nations.
The guarantors of the Astana format have meticulously worked on it for many years.
We believe the situation on the ground must not prevent the long-awaited launch of the committee in Geneva next week – October 29–30.
Naturally, we also discussed humanitarian issues. We consider it necessary to continue helping Syrian refugees to return home, which will substantially alleviate the socioeconomic burden shouldered by the countries that agreed to take in Syrians. First and foremost this applies to the Republic of Turkey.
We urge the international community, primarily relevant UN agencies, to be more active in rendering humanitarian aid to all Syrians going home, without any discrimination, politicisation and preconditions. We also used today’s meeting to discuss current bilateral issues.
We noted with satisfaction our growing trade. Last year it increased by 16 percent. We exchanged views on what to do in the near future and expressed confidence that the implementation of the agreements on settlements and payments in national currencies signed in early October will also facilitate the further growth of trade.
We spoke about an important document that provides not only for more active use of the ruble and lira but also broader acceptance of the Russian Mir cards in Turkey and the connection of Turkish banks and companies to the Bank of Russia’s financial messaging system. I believe this is yet another step forward on expanding tourist exchanges.
We spoke about the whole package of our relations, including major projects that we are actively and successfully developing. We are also deepening our military-technical cooperation. I would like to note that cross-years of culture and tourism are held with success in Russia and Turkey.
In conclusion, I would like to thank the President of Turkey and all our friends and colleagues for a business-like and sincere conversation. We intend to further develop our cooperation in all areas on the principles of neighbourliness and respect for each other’s interests.
I am pleased to say that as a result of lengthy and intensive work we managed to make decisions that the foreign ministers of our countries will voice after our statements.
I think these decisions are very important, if not historic, and will allow us to settle the fairly acute situation on the Syrian-Turkish border.
(Foto: Erdogan, l., und Putin bei ihrem Pressestatement – Foto Kreml)