Und noch ein wichtiger Bericht aus Afghanistan: Die Menschenrechtsorganisation Human Rights Watch hat eine Zusammenstellung von (Kriegs)Verbrechen einflussreicher Afghanen vorgelegt, die bislang außerhalb jeder rechtlichen Verfolgung stehen. Und auch unter der neuen Regierung von Präsident Ashraf Ghani bislang unbehelligt bleiben. Unter den acht Männern, die in dem Bericht Today We All Shall Die (Heute werden wir alle sterben) näher untersucht werden, sind auch zwei Personen, die im Norden Afghanistans unter den Augen der früheren ISAF-Mission (und damit auch der Bundeswehr) agierten:
Mohammed Atta Noor, Gouverneur der Provinz Balkh
Human Rights Watch has documented Atta’s maintenance of a network of militias under his effective command that has been implicated in serious human rights abuses. According to one report, in 2011 Atta controlled at least two militia groups, numbering a total of 452 men. Another report found that in Balkh province Atta has “armed over 1500 arbaki“ and uses these groups as “insurance,” should the political situation in the country change.
A well-placed official told Human Rights Watch that around early 2011, Atta was providing about US$30,000 a month to a commander named Wudood, currentlythe chief of police of Balkh district, to support his network.
Since 2001, Atta has supported a wider network of former militia members, helping about 1,500 of them with land grants. Many of these informal armed groups were able to obtain official status through integration into the Afghan Local Police, subverting the stated
purpose of the ALP to be a genuinely community-based force under the ultimate control of the Ministry of the Interior.
A senior international official knowledgeable about the ALP program stated in April 2011 that, “If you took the armed groups in the north and tried to convert them into ALP, they wouldn’t qualify.” Nonetheless, this is exactly what happened with the militias controlled by Atta. An informed official told Human Rights Watch that in Balkh province, “80 percent of the ALP are Atta’s people.”
A confidential NATO official security report obtained by Human Rights Watch noted that Atta exerts “significant control over the ANP on district level, and has by the instigation of armed militia tried to legalize and incorporate them with the police.” The report also noted that the experience of setting up security forces in Balkh showed that they “were likely to commit more violations against basic human rights than the regular police due to lack of education and oversight.” (…)
Two well-placed official sources independently told Human Rights Watch that several of Atta’s commanders within the security services have operated criminal gangs that have been involved in kidnappings and killings, among other abuses. Both sources, who asked for anonymity to protect them from reprisals, named the head of the police Criminal Investigation Department (Mudir-e Jinayi) Sultan Mohammad, NDS Deputy of Operations (Maween-e Operatifi) Said Shah (a brother-in-law of Governor Atta), and General Aziz, a senior officer within the Balkh NDS, as among the commanders most involved in criminal activities.
Mir Alam, ein einflußreicher früherer Milizenführer in Kundus
Although Mir Alam holds no official post, he remains among the most powerful figures in Kunduz. He was a close ally of former Vice President Marshal Mohammad Qasim Fahim, who directly supported Mir Alam until Fahim’s death in March 2014. A leaked US embassy cable from 2009 described Alam as “the most powerful power broker” in the province, a view that US and UN officials have echoed in recent interviews.
Kunduz is home to numerous armed groups affiliated with a variety of formal and informal military commanders. Estimates of the total number of militia members in Kunduz range from 4,500 to about 10,000. Local residents have implicated some of these forces in
significant abuses, including forces that reportedly receive support from the US military. (…)
Diplomats, government officials, and ordinary Afghans have accused Alam and his illegal militia of a range of abuses, including forced collection of “religious taxes.” According to AAN, the provincial authorities turn a blind eye to this illegal tax collection because “commanders of illegal militias like Mir Alam belong to the same tanzim (mujahedin party) networks that dominate the provincial administration.”
A serious incident linked to the militia forces under Alam’s command or benefitting from his patronage occurred in September 2012
in Konam-e-Kalan, a predominantly Pashtun village in Kunduz province. That morning, witnesses allege that forces under Alam’s
command, together with militias supported by him, killed 12 villagers in retribution for the assassination of a militia member, Jalil Chunta.
Der ganze, 96 Seiten lange Bericht findet sich hier.
Nachtrag: Das Afghanistan Analysts Network hat sich den Bericht hier genauer angeschaut und noch einiges dazu zu sagen. (Allerdings: die Klage, dass der HRW-Bericht von vergleichsweise wenig Medien aufgegriffen wurde, könnte auch einen technischen Grund haben. Während ich sonst von der Organisation alle möglichen Informationen zu Berichten über die Menschenrechtslage in aller Welt immer rechtzeitig per E-Mail erhalte, kam dieser Afghanistan-Bericht nicht bei mir an. Vielleicht gab’s da einfach ein technisches Problem, das dazu geführt hat, dass es diesmal weniger Aufmerksamkeit gab.)